Friday, 11. 4. 2019    

Cancer Cell Research (Online ISSN: 2161-2609)


Current Issue

Vol.6  No.22


Article: Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Retroperitoneal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors
by Xiangyang He, Lichao Cha, Guorui Li, Qian Wei, Fabo Qiu
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 578-580; published online  8 April 2019
Abstract: To investigate characteristics of diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal primitive neuroectodermal tumors. The clinical data of 8 patients with retroperitoneal primitive neuroectodermal tumors admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from May 2011 to September 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were confirmed by pathology as primitive neuroectodermal tumors. 2 cases underwent needle biopsy before surgery, 3 cases were given palliative resection, 5 cases accepted complete resection of the tumor, and 4 cases were combined organ resection. The retroperitoneal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a highly malignancy and is difficult to diagnose before operation. The main treatment is surgery-based comprehensive treatment, and the prognosis of this disease is poor.

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Article: Protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow an on high oxidized low density lipoprotein induced human coronary artery endothelial cells injuries
by Tianjie Miao, Lei Qian, Fei Yu, Longgang Hu, Han Jiaqi, Yi An
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 581-589; published online  8 April 2019
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the injury of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) induced by high oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and to examine the protective effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on HCAECs injury. It was found that in the high ox-LDL group the content of NO, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein were decreased. The expression of LDH, lectin-like low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) mRNA and LOX-1 protein were up-regulated. The number of apoptotic cells were significantly increased after deal with high ox-LDL compared with the control group. Furthermore, in the high ox-LDL+HSYA group, the cell survival rate, the release of NO and the expression of eNOS mRNA and eNOS protein were increased. The secretion of LDH and the expression of LOX-1 at the level of mRNA and protein were down-regulated. The number of apoptosis were significantly reduced after combined with HSYA compared with the high ox-LDL group. Therefore, high ox-LDL had an obvious damage to HCAECs. The HSYA inhibited the high ox-LDL-induced HCAECs injury and protected and promoted the cell repaired, possibly by up-regulating the eNOS gene and protein expression, increasing NO release, inhibiting LDH release and down-regulating LOX-1 mRNA and protein expression to achieve the effect. The treatment and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, as well as the recovery of patients undergoing postoperative percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), will benefit to a large extent.

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Article: The study of correlation between EB virus with Chronic lymphoblastic leukemia
by Changkai Zhang, Wei Lu, Xiaofang Guo, Hongzai Guan
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 590-596; published online  8 April 2019
Abstract: To investigate the relationship between EBV infection and the occurrence and development of chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL), and to provide a reliable basis for revealing the close relationship between EBV infection and CLL. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) was used to detect the copy numbers of EBV-DNA from the bone marrow of 80 CLL patients. 40 healthy persons were control group and 40 cases for clinical follow-up. The results showed that the EBV positive rates (EBV+) of CLL patients and healthy controls were 25% (20/80) and 7.5% (3/40) respectively. Chromosome analysis showed that the rate of EBV+ in CLL patients with chromosome abnormalities was 18.75% (3/16), while the rate of EBV- was 81.25% (13/16), and no significant difference was observed between chromosome abnormality and EBV infection (2=0.21, p>0.05). Clinical follow-up showed that the relapse rate mortality rate of EBV+ and EBV- groups within 5 years were 55.6% (10/18), 28.6% (12/42) and 44.4% (8/18), 4.7% (2/42), respectively (p<0.05). ML-EBV+ had higher relapse and mortality rates compared with ML-EBV-. 6 patients with EBV-positive CLL progressed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). EBV infection may be related to the occurrence and development of CLL. EBV infection is not conducive to the prognosis of CLL. And EBV may participate in the transformation of CLL to DLBCL.

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Article: Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome caused by novel GLI3 mutation: a family report
by Ying Tang, Juan Ge, Tang Li
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 597-601; published online  18 April 2019
Abstract: To investigate the clinical feature and gene mutaiton of Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS). The clinical data and the whole exome sequencing results of two patients with GCPS in the same family were retrospectively analyzed. The related literatures were reviewed. The propositus was a 7-month-old girl who manifested a prominent forehead and widely spaced eyes, but have no evident growth developmental retardation. Her mother, 25-year-old, manifested a prominent forehead, macrocephaly, hypertelorism, broad thumbs and halluces in both hands and feet, and scoliosis. A novel missense mutation in GLI3 gene was found by whole exon sequencing of the proband, which caused the 478th amino acid of the GLI3 gene encoded protein which changed from tyrosine to cysteine acid. The GLI3 mutation was identified in his mother by Sanger sequencing. Her father GLI3 gene was normal. The same missense mutation was not retrieved in the HGMD. Reports of the mutation were not found in the previous research. It may be a new mutation. The GCPS is a pleiotropic, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by GLI3 gene mutation or deletion. More than 70 GLI3 gene mutation sites with GCPS had been reported and the most common type was frame shift mutations. Awareness by clinicians of the array of phenotypes manifest in GCPS and gene detection will aid in clinical diagnosis.

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Article: Clinical features of malignant lymphoma in children: a retrospective study of 45 cases
by Ting Han, Xuerong Li, Jian Jiang, Ren Zhong, Lirong Sun
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 602-606; published online  18 April 2019
Abstract: To investigate the clinical, pathological features and prognosis of lymphoma in children. The data of 45 children with malignant lymphoma who were hospitalized during the period from January 2013 to March 2018. The clinical data of 45 children were analyzed. 32 were male and 13 were female. The median age of onset was 10 years. The 27 cases (60%) was in the lymph nodes and 18 cases (40%) was outside the lymph nodes. The extranodal side was common in the abdominal cavity. There was a statistically significant difference between the onset of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and Non-hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (p<0.05). Pathological type HL was mainly classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (CHL), and 11 cases of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in NHL Next, 8 cases of ALK negative large B-cell lymphoma and 6 cases of T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (TLBL). 41 cases (91.1%) were stage III and IV. Hodgkin's lymphoma was positive for Epstein-Barr virus expression, and had different degrees of infection during or after chemotherapy. 5 cases were negative for EB virus expression. Only 1 of the children had infection during chemotherapy. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was negative for Epstein-Barr virus expression. Children with malignant lymphoma are mainly NHL, which is more common in male children. The most common pathological types are Burkitt's lymphoma, ALK-internal large B-cell lymphoma and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. The main site of onset of malignant lymphoma in children is lymph nodes. Hodgkin's lymphoma is associated with EB virus infection.

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Article: Metastatic carcinoma of the thyroid gland: a study of 18 cases during a nine years’ period
by Yujing Li, Meixiang Hu, Jigang Wang
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 607-612; published online  22 April 2019
Abstract: Metastasis to the thyroid gland is extremely rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and pathological features of metastatic carcinomas of the thyroid. The clinical data of 18 patients with thyroid metastatic carcinoma were obtained from the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University ranging from January 2010 to January 2019. All clinical records were carefully reviewed, and follow-up was made by telephone. There were 9 males and 9 females in this group. In descending order, the primary lesions were lung adenocarcinoma (6 cases), small-cell lung cancer (5 cases), breast cancer (3 cases), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (2 cases), hypopharyngeal cancer (1 case), gingival cancer (1 case). The thyroid metastasis was presented as the main complaint in 3 patients. The interval from the diagnosis of primary tumor to metastasis ranged from 4 months to 16 years. Thyroid metastatic carcinoma is rare, and the present study is one of the largest case series to date. Our study indicates that lung cancer and breast cancer are the two common types of thyroid metastases in China.

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Article: Identification of key candidate genes and pathways in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma by bioinformatic analysis
by Jiahan Cui, Daqian Li, Yuefeng Jia, Xinsheng Wang
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 613-619 published online  22 April 2019
Abstract: To investigate key candidate genes and potential pathways in Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma by bioinformatic analysis. Apply bioinformatic analysis to screen differentially expressed genes based on RNA sequencing data of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in the Cancer Genome Atlas database.Cluster the candidate genes on the grounds of functions and signaling pathways. Identify 5663 differentially expressed genes based on bioinformatic analysis and performe 1136 gene ontology terms and 43 pathways. We have access to genetic changes and most of the corresponding genes are involved in ion channels, chemokines and G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways.

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Article: High-throughput T cell receptor sequencing reveals the effect of Human Cytomegalovirus IE2 immediate early protein on mouse immunohistochemistry
by Xiaoke Liu, Dongmeng Qian, Xianjuan Zhang, Ziying Qin, Ting Liu, Bin Wang
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 620-627 published online  28 April 2019
Abstract: As an important immune cell, T lymphocytes can recognize the antigenic peptide through the specific T cell receptor on the cell surface, and activate the human acquired immune response. The diversity of T cell antigen recognition receptors determines the host immune response and disease prognosis. It has been reported that congenital Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection causes the immune system to be suppressed in immunodeficient individuals. However, as an important protein of HCMV, whether IE2 plays a key role during HCMV latent infection and whether IE2 will change the TCR library is still unknown. The purpose of this study is discussed the effects of IE2 on TCR library and its diversity. First, UL122 genetically modified mice models that can steadily and continuously express IE2 protein were established. Then, we divided the transgenic mice into two groups, the experimental group (positive mice identified) and control group (negative mice, n=8 in each group). The establishment of UL122 genetically modified mice was identified by PCR technology. We used immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of IE2 in both groups. Flow cytometry was measured the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+T cells. High-throughput T cell receptor sequencing was performed to detect the differences of Vβ and Jβ gene segments and the change of TCR diversity. We found that IE2 was widely expressed in immune organs of experimental mice, and the expression of IE2 affects the distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell. In addition, we first determined the profile of the TCRβ immune repertoire during HCMV latent infection, indicating that the expression of IE2 resulted in remarkably lower TCRβ diversity in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that the expression of IE2 gives a rise to aberrant immune microenvironment that affects immune response, and the low diversity of TCR caused by IE2 expression may be a mechanism of HCMV immunosuppression.

Open Access Download (free) PDF     Supplementary Material     TABLE S01multiplex primers


Article: CSF1/CSF1R signaling enhances the release of BDNF through increasing P2X4R expression in microglia
by Zhao Dai, Di Wang, Haichen Chu, Yongxin Liang
Cancer Cell Research 2019 6(22) 628-637 published online  28 May 2019
Abstract: Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF1) may accelerate microglial activation through targeting CSF1 receptor (CSF1R), and DNAX-activating protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is suggested to be the downstream of CSF1R. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), the key cytokine in the development of hyperalgesia, is reported to be released from activated microglia. We attempted to investigate the mechanisms of CSF1/CSF1R signaling induced BDNF release in microglia. Rat microglia was treated with CSF1. Iba1, iNOS, Arg1, DAP12 and P2 purinoceptors expressions were detected. DAP12 siRNA was transfected with microglia to investigate the expression of purinoceptors. BDNF protein level of the culture medium and cell lysates was measured by ELISA kit. CSF1 promoted a M2 phenotype polarization of microglia and increased P2X4R expression in microglia. BDNF mRNA and protein level was also increased in CSF1 treated microglia, but the secretion of BDNF was depended on activation of ATP/P2X4R pathway. DAP12, the downstream of CSF1R, was responsible for CSF1 induced P2X4R upregulation. These data indicated that CSF1/CSF1R/DAP12 signaling regulated the synthesis of P2X4R and BDNF. And ATP/P2X4R pathway was responsible for BDNF secretion. These contributes may lead to explicit CSF1 induced BDNF release in vitro.

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